NATIONAL GEOGRAPHIC REFERENCES
1. J. C. Kricher, A neotropical companion: An introduction to the animals, plants, and ecosystems of the New World tropics (Princeton University Press, 1999).
2. R. Dirzo, P. H. Raven, Global state of biodiversity and loss. Annu. Rev. Environ. Resour. 28, 137–167 (2003).
3. B. Collen, M. Ram, T. Zamin, L. McRae, The tropical biodiversity data gap: Addressing disparity in global monitoring. Tropical Conservation Science. 1, 75–88 (2008).
4. L. Gibson et al., Primary forests are irreplaceable for sustaining tropical biodiversity. Nature. 478, 378–381 (2011).
5. D. A. Clark et al., Net primary production in tropical forests: An evaluation and synthesis of existing field data. Ecol. Appl. 11, 371–384 (2001).
6. S. P. Yanoviak, N. M. Nadkarni, J. C. Gering, Arthropods in epiphytes: a diversity component that is not effectively sampled by canopy fogging. Biodivers. Conserv. 12, 731–741 (2003).
7. A. Nakamura et al., Forests and their canopies: Achievements and horizons in canopy science. Trends Ecol. Evol. 32, 438–451 (2017).
8. M. D. Lowman, T. D. Schowalter, J. Franklin, Methods in forest canopy research (University of California Press, 2012).
9. J. Barlow et al., Quantifying the biodiversity value of tropical primary, secondary, and plantation forests. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 104, 18555–18560 (2007).
10. T. A. Gardner et al., The cost-effectiveness of biodiversity surveys in tropical forests. Ecol. Lett. 11, 139–150 (2008).
11. L. F. Gonzalez et al., Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) and artificial intelligence revolutionizing wildlife monitoring and conservation. Sensors. 16 (2016), doi:10.3390/s16010097.
12. W. J. Sutherland et al., A horizon scan of global conservation issues for 2016. Trends Ecol. Evol. 31, 44–53 (2016).
13. R. E. Gropp, Specimens, collections, and tools for future biodiversity-related research. Bioscience. 68, 3–4 (2018).
14. K. C. Kim, Biodiversity, conservation and inventory: why insects matter. Biodivers. Conserv. 2, 191–214 (1993).
15. V. Carignan, M.-A. Villard, Selecting indicator species to monitor ecological integrity: a review. Environ. Monit. Assess. 78, 45–61 (2002).
16. N. E. Stork et al., Consistency of effects of tropical-forest disturbance on species composition and richness relative to use of indicator taxa. Conserv. Biol. 31, 924–933 (2017).
17. K. Schoenly, R. A. Beaver, T. A. Heumier, On the trophic relations of insects: A food-web approach. Am. Nat. 137, 597–638 (1991).
18. F. J. F. van Veen, R. J. Morris, H. C. J. Godfray, Apparent competition, quantitative food webs, and the structure of phytophagous insect communities. Annu. Rev. Entomol. 51, 187–208 (2006).
19. J. Carnicer et al., Widespread crown condition decline, food web disruption, and amplified tree mortality with increased climate change-type drought. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 108, 1474–1478 (2011).
20. M. A. Jamieson, A. M. Trowbridge, K. F. Raffa, R. L. Lindroth, Consequences of climate warming and altered precipitation patterns for plant-insect and multitrophic interactions. Plant Physiol. 160, 1719–1727 (2012).
21. K. F. Raffa, A. A. Berryman, Interacting selective pressures in conifer-bark beetle systems: A basis for reciprocal adaptations? Am. Nat. 129, 234–262 (1987).
22. S. J. DeWalt, J. S. Denslow, K. Ickes, Natural-enemy release facilitates habitat expansion of the invasive tropical shrub Clidemia hirta. Ecology. 85, 471–483 (2004).
23. T. Alerstam, A. Hedenström, S. Åkesson, Long-distance migration: evolution and determinants. Oikos. 103, 247–260 (2003).
24. I. Newton, The migration ecology of birds (Elsevier, 2010).
25. J. Wimmer, M. Towsey, P. Roe, I. Williamson, Sampling environmental acoustic recordings to determine bird species richness. Ecol. Appl. 23, 1419–1428 (2013).
26. V. T. La, T. D. Nudds, Estimation of avian species richness: biases in morning surveys and efficient sampling from acoustic recordings. Ecosphere. 7, e01294 (2016).
27. L. B. Symes, Community composition affects the shape of mate response functions. Evolution. 68, 2005–2013 (2014).
28. T. J. Walker, Factors responsible for intraspecific variation in the calling songs of crickets. Evolution. 16, 407–428 (1962).
29. M. M. Cigliano, H. Braun, D. C. Eades, D. Otte, Orthoptera species file online. Version 5.0/5.0 (2017).
30. J. R. Krebs, D. E. Kroodsma, in Advances in the Study of Behavior, J. S. Rosenblatt, R. A. Hinde, C. Beer, M.-C. Busnel, Eds. (Academic Press, 1980), vol. 11, pp. 143–177.
31. T. M. Aide, A. Hernández-Serna, M. Campos-Cerqueira, O. Acevedo-Charry, J. L. Deichmann, Species richness (of insects) drives the use of acoustic space in the tropics. Remote Sensing. 9 (11): 1096 (2017).
32. K. Riede, Acoustic monitoring of Orthoptera and its potential for conservation. J. Insect Conserv. 2, 217–223 (1998).
33. R. Buxton et al., Efficacy of extracting indices from large-scale acoustic recordings to monitor biodiversity. Conserv. Biol. (2018) (available at https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/abs/10.1111/cobi.13119).
34. D. Chesmore, Automated bioacoustic identification of species. An. Acad. Bras. Cienc. 76, 436–440 (2004).
35. B. Zhang, J. Cheng, Y. Han, L. Ji, F. Shi, An acoustic system for the individual recognition of insects. J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 131, 2859–2865 (2012).
36. D. Zilli, O. Parson, G. V. Merrett, A. Rogers, A Hidden Markov Model-based acoustic cicada detector for crowdsourced smartphone biodiversity monitoring. 1. 51, 805–827 (2014).
37. M. E. H. Fournet, L. Jacobsen, C. M. Gabriele, D. K. Mellinger, H. Klinck, More of the same: allopatric humpback whale populations share acoustic repertoire. PeerJ. 6, e5365 (2018).
38. R. A. Charif, C. W. Clark, K. M. Fristrup, Cornell Laboratory of Ornithology; Ithaca, NY: 2007. Raven Pro. 1.
39. D. A. Nickle, Katydids of Panama (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Insect of Panama and Mesoamerica. Oxford Science Publications, 142–184 (1992).
40. J. J. Falk et al., Sensory-based niche partitioning in a multiple predator–multiple prey community. Proc. R. Soc. B. 282, 20150520 (2015).
41. J. J. Belwood, G. K. Morris, Bat predation and its influence on calling behavior in neotropical katydids. Science. 238, 64–67 (1987).
42. J. Gradwohl, R. Greenberg, The effect of a single species of avian predator on the arthropods of aerial leaf litter. Ecology. 63, 581–583 (1982).
43. C. A. Peres, Prey-capture benefits in a mixed-species group of Amazonian tamarins, Saguinus fuscicollis and S. mystax. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31, 339–347 (1992).
44. H. Ter Hofstede et al., Revisiting adaptations of neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae) to gleaning bat predation. Neotrop Biodivers. 3, 41–49 (2017).
45. S. Kahl et al., Large-scale bird sound classification using convolutional neural networks. Working notes of CLEF (2017) (available at https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/25d8/07b26baadd3df0be470866a2166600b79a73.pdf).
46. F. Danielsen et al., Local participation in natural resource monitoring: a characterization of approaches. Conserv. Biol. 23, 31–42 (2009).
47. S. L. Pimm et al., Emerging technologies to conserve biodiversity. Trends Ecol. Evol. 30, 685–696 (2015).
48. V. Proença et al., Global biodiversity monitoring: From data sources to Essential Biodiversity Variables. Biol. Conserv. 213, 256–263 (2017).
49. K. O. Hackman, P. Gong, S. Venevsky, A rapid assessment of landscape biodiversity using diversity profiles of arthropod morphospecies. Landsc. Ecol. 32, 209–223 (2017).
50. R. Daly, G. Stevens, C. K. Daly, Rapid marine biodiversity assessment records 16 new marine fish species for Seychelles, West Indian Ocean. Mar. Biodivers. Rec. 11, 6 (2018).
51. K. G. Raiter, H. P. Possingham, S. M. Prober, R. J. Hobbs, Under the radar: mitigating enigmatic ecological impacts. Trends Ecol. Evol. 29, 635–644 (2014).
52. K. S. Willis, Remote sensing change detection for ecological monitoring in United States protected areas. Biol. Conserv. 182, 233–242 (2015).
53. T. G. Gregoire et al., Statistical rigor in LiDAR-assisted estimation of aboveground forest biomass. Remote Sens. Environ. 173, 98–108 (2016).
54. H. Schulte to Bühne, N. Pettorelli, Better together: Integrating and fusing multispectral and radar satellite imagery to inform biodiversity monitoring, ecological research and conservation science. Methods Ecol. Evol. 9, 849–865 (2018).
55. Y. Basset, P. M. Hammond, H. Barrios, J. D. Holloway, S. E. Miller, Vertical stratification of arthropod assemblages. Arthropods of tropical forests, 17–27 (2003).
56. F. Montealegre-Z, F. A. Sarria, M. C. Pimienta, A. C. Mason, Lack of correlation between vertical distribution and carrier frequency, and preference for open spaces in arboreal katydids that use extreme ultrasound, in Gorgona, Colombia (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). Revista de Biología Tropical. 62, 289–296 (2014).
57. H. M. ter Hofstede, E. K. V. Kalko, J. H. Fullard, Auditory-based defence against gleaning bats in neotropical katydids (Orthoptera: Tettigoniidae). J. Comp. Physiol. A Neuroethol. Sens. Neural Behav. Physiol. 196, 349–358 (2010).
58. L. B. Symes, R. A. Page, H. M. ter Hofstede, Effects of acoustic environment on male calling activity and timing in Neotropical forest katydids. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 70, 1485–1495 (2016).
59. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Vision and change in undergraduate biology education: a call to action. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC. visionandchange. org/finalreport (2011).
60. C. A. Brewer, D. Smith, Vision and change in undergraduate biology education: a call to action. American Association for the Advancement of Science, Washington, DC (2011).
61. S. Olson, D. G. Riordan, Engage to Excel: Producing One Million Additional College Graduates with Degrees in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics. Report to the President. Executive Office of the President (2012) (available at https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED541511).
62. L. S. Nadelson, L. Walters, J. Waterman, Course-integrated undergraduate research experiences structured at different levels of inquiry. Journal of STEM Education: Innovations and Research. 11 (2010) (available at http://jstem.org/index.php/JSTEM/article/download/1479/1291).
63. M. J. Kloser, S. E. Brownell, N. R. Chiariello, T. Fukami, Integrating teaching and research in undergraduate biology laboratory education. PLoS Biol. 9, e1001174 (2011).
64. D. I. Hanauer et al., Inquiry learning. Teaching scientific inquiry. Science. 314, 1880–1881 (2006).